ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES

There are over 150 super cities in the world with population from one to 15 million and more. Tokyo, New York, London, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro and Moscow are just a few of the cities which have become super cities.

People in the super cities suffer from polluted environment: bad ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES water, bad air and noise. A new term, urban climate, is used now for such cities. It means high temperature, oppressive atmosphere and intensive smog. Smog can make people feel ill and have difficulty in breathing. In Mexico City just breathing the air is life threatening. It is equivalent to ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same situation is in 600 cities of the former Soviet Union.

Air is polluted by the release of harmful substances, smoke from chimneys and exhaust fumes from cars. The problem is especially bad in some cities where there is no much wind and a ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES brown layer of smog hangs in the air.

Some experts consider that it is practically impossible to protect the big cities from pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) was studying air pollution around the world for over eight years. It measured two things: the level of sulphur ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES dioxide (S02) in the air and the level of smoke. Sulphur dioxide and smoke pollute water and have serious effect on forest, buildings and health of people.

In the WHO report it is shown that the cities with the most considerable level of S02 in the air are Milan, Teheran ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES, Prague, Santiago and Sao Paulo. However, the atmosphere in some cities with clean air gets worse in winter. Helsinki, for example, becomes one of the cities with the largest proportion of S02 in the air in winter. This must be connected with the heating of houses. One can ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES also mention Glasgow and Warsaw which suffer in the same way.

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Why does the atmosphere in some cities with clean air become worse in winter?

Перепишите и переведите предложения. Помните, что перевод сложных форм инфинитива и инфинитивных оборотов соответствуют ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES придаточным предложениям.

1. The hardware capabilities can be extended.

2. I know the operator to have returned.

3. We heard the computer work.

Перепишите и переведите предложения. Направьте внимание на перевод зависимого и независящего причастных оборотов.

1. Working on a computer, don’t put a lamp shining into your eyes.

2. If said, they will use ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES the computer resources.

3. The programme being useless, we stopped this work.

Перепишите и переведите предложения. Направьте внимание на перевод условных предложений.

1. If you read the article, you will know more about hard disks.

2. If I used the Internet, I would find necessary information more easily.

3. If they ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES had installed a more powerful central processing unit, they wouldn’t have had the problems in storing a lot of information.

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COMPUTERS IN OUR LIFE

The computer is known to be a very important invention of the 20th century. The ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES first electronic computer appeared to have the size of a large house, it being limited in power and unreliable. But computers developed quickly. Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions times more capable than the early ones. They being portable, we can carry ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES them in a little bag.

Computers changed the world a lot. Almost anything you know is run or мейд by computers. We are becoming increasingly dependent on computers. Computers give access to a lot of information. With a computer we can do a lot of things, for example: write ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES, read newspapers, paint, count and do other things. They are used in hospitals, schools, aeroplanes, trains, at home - everywhere.

There are some disadvantages, of course. Computers can get viruses. Computers becoming out-of-date very quickly, they need to be replaced. The main disadvantage of computers is that staring at a ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES screen for long periods of time can be damaging to the eyes, and sitting on a chair for hours is certainly not healthy. Also, people can be inclined to become antisocial.

However, the advantages of computers are numerous. Let us take their educational benefits. School subjects become more interesting when ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES presented on a computer screen. In addition, computers are valuable to any business, saving time by being capable of storing and retrieving vast amounts of information at the touch of the button. If there had been no computers, modern technological process would have been impossible.

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What problems can computers cause?


ВАРИАНТ V


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